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The Present Simple

FORMS

Positive

I / You / We / They

He / She / It

V1
V1 (s/es)

 

Negative

I / You / We / They do not

(don’t)

V1
He / She / It does not

(doesn’t)

 

Interrogative

Do I / you / we / they V1 ?
Does He / she / it

 

USES

  1. We use the present simple to talk about general, more or less permanent situations

è Water boils in 100oC

  1. The present simple can also refer to repeated actions, habits and customs. In this case, an adverb indicating frequency is often used.

è Dad always comes with me

  1. We can use this tense to refer to a scheduled or fixed future event.

è Our plane leaves at 10.35

 

NOTE

  • In the 3rd person singular, we normally add –s to infinitive : clean – cleans
  • When the verb ends in –s, -ch, -sh, -x, or –z, we add –es : Fix – fixes
  • When the verb ends in consonant + -y, we change the –y to –i and add –es :

marry –marries

 

Examples:

 Positive

  • I sometimes walk to school
  • He usually wears a suit
  • I come from Indonesia
  • She works in the hospital
  • The sun rises in the east

Negative

  • I do not walk to school
  • He does not wear a suit
  • I do not come from Indonesia
  • She doesn’t work in the hospital
  • The sun doesn’t rise in the west

Question and Answer / Interrogative

  • Do I walk to school? Yes, I do
  • Does he wear a suit? No, he doesn’t
  • Where do you come from? I come from Indonesia
  • Where does she work? She works in the hospital

 

The Present Continuous Tense

 

FORMS

 

Positive

I am V -ing
You / We / They are
He / She / It is

 

Negative

I am not V -ing
You / We / They are
He / She / It is

 

Interrogative

Am I V -ing ?
Are You / We / They
Is He / She / It

 

USES

  1. We use the present continuous to indicate an action is in the progress at this moment.

è Dad’s not here, he’s fishing

  1. We also use the present continuous to describe something happening about this time, but not necessarily at this moment

è My brother is working for him

 

We do not usually use the present continuous with verb that don’t express actions.

Now I know the answer (correct)

Now I am knowing the answer (incorrect)

Common non-action verbs include:

  1. Verbs that refer to metal states: think, understand, know, believe, doubt, mean, remember
  2. Verbs that refer to the use of the senses: hear, see, feel, taste, smell
  3. Verbs that refer to emotional: love, hate, adore, like, dislike, prefer, want
  4. Have, possess, belong to, need

 

NOTE

  • ‘To be’ must be used to form the present continuous
  • We add –ing the infinitive when we form the present continuous (start – starting)
  • When the verb ends in –e, we do not write the –e before –ing (make – making)
  • When the verb ends in consonant and the stress is on the final syllable, we double the final consonant and add –ing (scan – scanning)

 

Examples:


Positive

  • I am walking to work
  • He is wearing a suit
  • I am coming from Indonesia
  • She is working in the hospital

Negative

  • I am not walking to work
  • He is not wearing a suit
  • I am not coming from Indonesia
  • She is not working in the hospital

Interrogative

  • Are you walking to school? Yes, I am
  • Is he wearing a suit? No, he isn’t
  • Is she working in the hospital? Yes, she is

 

The Past Simple Tense

 

FORMS

 

Positive

I / You / We / They V2
He / She / It

 

Negative

I / You / We / They Did not

( didn’t )

V2
He / She / It

 

Interrogative

Did I / You / We / They V1 ?
He / She / It

 

USES

  1. The past tense can refer to a completed action or event in the past

è At nine o’clock I made a cup of coffee

  1. We can use this tense to refer to repeated past events

è I played a lot of tennis when I was a child

  1. The past tense can also refer to past situations or states that we consider to be finished

è When he was a little boy, he lived in Madrid

 

NOTE

  • Regular verbs form Past Simple by adding –ed to the infinitive: look – looked
  • When the verb ends in consonant + vowel + consonant and the stress is on the final syllable, we double the final consonant (except -y and -w) and add –ed: shop – shopped
  • When the verb ends in consonant + -y, we change the -y to -i and add –ed: hurry – hurried

 

Examples:

Positive

  • I went to Surabaya last week
  • Rudi studied hard for the exam
  • She invited me to her party

 

Negative

  • I did not go to Surabaya last week
  • He didn’t study hard for the exam
  • She did not invite me to her party

 

Question and Interrogative

  • Did you go to Surabaya last week?

Yes, I did

  • What did he do for the exam?

He studied hard

  • Did she invite you to her party?

Yes, she did

 

 

Countable and Uncountable Nouns

 

Countable Noun

Nouns referring to things which can be counted are called countable nouns. They have singular and plural forms.

Singular a/an

one

noun Example:

a mango, an apple, one car, one table

Plural some

many

any

few

two, three

noun + s/es Example:

Some mangoes, any students, many books, a few troubles, few houses, ten cars

 

The singular form of a countable noun is always preceded by a determiner, such as ‘a/an’ ‘another’, ‘every’, or ‘the’ or possessive “my, his, her, their, our, its

Example:

  • I like apple (wrong)
  • I like an apple or I like apples

 

Uncountable Noun

Nouns which don’t refer to individual objects or events are called uncountable nouns.

These nouns don’t have plural form.

Example:

Some sugar, any milk, a little snow, little meat.

These are some examples of uncountable nouns.

Food Meat, cheese, bread, butter, fruit, fish Diseases Measles, cancer, diarrhea
Liquids Milk, water, wine, beer, coffee, tea Science and school subject Mathematics, physics, chemistry, economics, literature
Material Glass, wood, iron, paper, steel, gold Games Baseball, chess, billiards, darts, football, golf, soccer, poker, tennis
Natural phenomenon Weather, heat, snow, lightning, wind, rain, thunder Abstract nouns Beauty, freedom, love, honesty, justice, work, time, information, news, knowledge, accommodation
Languages English, French, Greek, Indonesian Some concrete nouns Furniture, money, traffic, business

 

  1. Uncountable nouns can be used without any determiners.
  • Water is the most abundant substance on the earth’s surface.
  • I hate mathematics
  • They are fighting for freedom

Note: Uncountable nouns are preceded by “some” when “a certain quantity of number is implied.

  • Water is also found in lakes and steams … (all water, in general)
  • I want to drink some water. (certain quantity)
  1. Uncountable nouns can be preceded by possessive pronouns and definite article “the”.
  • My money is not enough to buy the toy
  • The glass of the window is dark
  1. Uncountable nouns are not used after numbers. To show their quantity, we can use some, any, little or other forms such as a cup of …, a piece of …, a bar of …
  • I need some salt
  • Do you have any sugar?
  • I drink a little water
  • I buy a bar of chocolate

 

 

Should and Ought to

 

FORMS

 

Positive

I / You / We / They should V1
He / She / It ought to

 

Negative

I / You / We / They shouldn’t V1
He / She / It oughtn’t to

 

USES

 

  • Should and ought to are used to say that you expect something to happen
  • We should be there by dinner time
  • It ought to get better as it goes along
  • Should and ought to are used to say that something is morally right
  • Crimes should be punished
  • I ought to call the police
  • You can say you should or you ought to when you are giving someone advice
  • I think you should get in touch with your mother
  • I think you ought to try a different approach

 

EXAMPLES

 

Statement (Positive)

  • I will have a test

I should study hard

  • She is tired

She ought to take a rest

 

Negative

  • He has a fever

She should not go outside

He ought not to go to work

 

 

Adverbs

 

NOTE

Adverbs are words which give information about when, how, where, or in what circumstances something happens. The main types of adverbs indicate frequency, time, place, manner, degree, duration

 

Adverbs of manner – to show how the subject does the action

  • He speaks English fluently
  • He screamed loudly
  • He goes to school by bus

Adverbs of place – to show where the action happen

  • He is studying in the library
  • He went there

Adverbs of time – to show when the action happen

  • I met her yesterday
  • Tomorrow I am going to Bali

Adverbs of frequency – to show how often the action happens

(usually, always, often, occasionally, rarely, never)

  • I always get up late
  • I usually go to school by bus

 

FORMULATION

Adverbs are formed Examples Be careful with
– Regularly by adding –ly to the adjective quiet-quietly, bad-badly, extreme-extremely true-truly
– By changing the spelling of the adjective and adding -ly

-y     à    -ily

-le    à    -ly

-ic    à    -ically

noisy-noisily, lucky-luckily, simple-simply, sensible-sensibly, dramatic-dramatically whole-wholly
– By keeping the same form as the adjective big

cheap

clean

clear

close

cold

dead

dear

dirty

far

fast

fine

last

long

loud

low

past

quick

quiet

right

straight

thick

thin

tight

Cheap, clean, clear, close, dear, fine, loud, quick, quiet, thin: in normal formal speech the adverb is formed in -ly
– Irregularly Good-well  

 

Order of adverbs:

  • manner – place – time

Example: She slept deeply in the living room last night

  • place – manner – time (after the verb of movement)

Example: I went to Jakarta by plane last week

I walked to the stadium fast yesterday

 

Download materi bahasa inggris simple Tenses doc word

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