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TENSES

 

PRESENT TENSE

 

  1. Present Continuous Tense ( Verb : is, am, are + ing )

è Untuk menyatakan aktivitas yang sedang berlangsung sekarang (atau present, this moment, now, etc)

 

Examples :

  • Don’t make so much noise, the baby is sleeping.
  • Where are the nurses?

They are having a meeting.

  • I am tired. I am going to bed now.

 

  1. Simple Present Tense ( Verb : V1 atau V1 + s/es )

è Untuk menyatakan aktivitas yang selalu diulang (repeated action ), kebiasaan  (habitual action) dan kebenaran umum (general truth).

 

Example :

  • He is a driver. He drives a bus.
  • I usually go away at weekends.
  • Nurse looks after patients in hospital.
  • Where does he come from. He comes from Papua.

 

  1. Present Prefect Tense ( Has/Have + V3 )

è Untuk menyatakan aktivitas yang telah dilakukan tanpa diikuti keterangan waktu yang pasti. (keterangan : yet, already, since, for)

 

Examples :

  • Is Sally here? No, she has gone
  • Don’t forget to post the letter.

I have already posted it.

  • I have written a report but I have’t given it to the doctor yet.

 

  1. Present Perfect Continuous Tense ( Have/Has + Been + V ing )

è Untuk menyatakan aktivitas yang telah dilakukan beberapa saat dan sampai sekarang masih berlangsung (berdurasi).

Keterangan waktu : for ….., since ….. dan keterangan waktu yang menunjukkan bahwa sampai sekarang aktivitas itu masih berlangsung.

 

Examples :

  • The surgeon has been operating the patient for 2 hour. He is still doing it now.
  • I have been teaching in nursing academy for 3 years. I am still teaching there now.
  • I have been waiting a doctor for almost an hour, but she has not arrived yet.

 

 

PAST TENSE

 

  1. Simple Past ( V2 )

è Untuk menyatakan aktivitas yang sudah dilakukan diwaktu lampau dan waktunya tertentu.

Keterangan waktu : ago, yesterday, last, just now.

 

Examples :

  • The police stopped me on my way home last night.
  • My patient died two hours ago.
  • Did you invite him to your wedding party.

Yes, I invited him, but he didn’t come.

 

  1. Past Continuos ( Was/Were + V ing )

è Untuk menyatakan aktivitas yang sedang berlangsung ketika ada aktivitas lain yang menyusul, keduanya terjadi di masa lampau.

Atau untuk menyatakan suatu aktivitas yang berlangsung cukup lama diwaktu lampau (ket: when, while, the whole …..).

 

Examples :

  • The nurse was making the bed when the patient collapsed.
  • The container exploded, when the lab workers were doing some experiment.
  • That baby was crying the whole night.

 

  1. Past Perfect ( Had + V3 )

è Untuk menyatakan suatu aktivitas yang telah dilakukan setelah berlangsung pada waktu disusul aktivitas lain.

Keterangan waktu : Before, After

 

Examples :

  • I had done the morning care before I left. I hope you come to replace me.
  • The doctor diagnosed her illness after he had examined
  • The surgeon had operated the patient before he went home.

 

  1. Past Perfect Continuous ( Had + Been + V ing )

è Untuk menyatakan suatu aktivitas yang telah berlangsung beberapa lama sebelum disusul aktivitas lain (berdurasi dimasa lampau).

Keterangan waktu : for ….. when / for ….. before

 

Examples :

  • He had been doing a presentation for an hour when one of the audiences interrupt him.
  • He had been teaching in SPK for 8 years before I started teaching in nursing academic.
  • The student had been discussing for 30 minutes when the teacher entered the classroom.

 

 

FUTURE TENSE

 

  1. Simple Future : ( Will + V1 / to be going to )

è Untuk menyatakan suatu aktivitas yang akan dilaksanakan pada waktu tertentu dimasa yang akan datang.

Ket: next ….., tomorrow, tonight.

 

Examples :

  • We will have a trip next week.
  • We are going to have trip next week.
  • I will inform you the latest news about her.

 

  1. Future Continuous ( Will Be + V ing )

è Untuk menyatakan aktivitas yang akan sedang dilakukan di masa yang akan datang.

 

Examples :

  • Don’t comes to my house around three tomorrow. I will be taking a nap.
  • She will be teaching from 07.00 to 13.00 next Monday.

 

  1. Future Perfect Tense : ( Will + have + V3 )

è Untuk menyatakan aktivitas yang akan telah selesai dilakukan pada waktu yang akan datang.

Ket: by ….. / before …..

 

Examples :

  • The students will have finished their task by 12.00
  • I will have submitted my paper before saturday.

 

  1. Future Perfect Continuos ( Will + Have Been + V ing )

è Untuk menyatakan aktivitas yang sudah berlangsung sampai sekarang masih dan akan tetap berlangsung sampai waktu tertentu (berdurasi di masa yang akan datang).

Ket: for ….. by …..

 

Examples :

  • We will have been studying English for 6 years by June 2000.
   

Present

 

Past Future
 

Simple

 

V1 V2 Will + V1
 

Continuous

 

To be + Ving Was/were + Ving Will + be + Ving
 

Perfect

 

Have/Has + V3 Had + V3 Will + Have + V3
Perfect Continuous Have/Has + Been + Ving Had + Been + Ving  

Will + Have + Been + Ving

 

  • The doctor will have been operating the patient for 3 hour by 11.00

 

PASSIVE VOICE

 

Passive voice adalah kalimat yang digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu pikiran atau perbuatan yang terdiri dari dua bentuk; yaitu bentuk kalimat aktif dan bentuk kalimat pasif. Pada bentuk kalimat aktif, subyeknya melakukan suatu pekerjaan atau perbuatan. Sedangkan pada kalimat pasif, subyeknya dikenakan pekerjaan atau perbuatan.

 

Kata kerja yang digunakan dalam kalimat pasif bahasa Inggris adalah dengan menggunakan rumus :

… Be + Verb – 3

 

  ACTIVE PASSIVE
Simple present

Simple past

Present continuous

Past continuous

Present perfect

Past perfect

Simple future

 

Future perfect

She helps John

She helped John

She is helping John

She was helping John

She has helped John

She had helped John

She will help John

She is going to help John

She will have helped John

John is helped by her

John was helped by her

John is being helped by her

John was being helped by her

John has been helped by her

John had been helped by her

John will be helped by her

John is going to be helped by her

John will have been helped by her

 

 

Exercise 1 : Change the active to the passive by supplying the correct form of be!

  1. Tom opens the door è The door ______________ opened by Tom
  2. Tom is opening the door è The door ______________ opened by Tom
  3. Tom has opened the door è The door ______________ opened by Tom
  4. Tom opened the door è The door ______________ opened by Tom
  5. Tom was opening the door è The door ______________ opened by Tom
  6. Tom had opened the door è The door ______________ opened by Tom
  7. Tom will open the door è The door ______________ opened by Tom
  8. Tom is going to open the door è The door ______________ opened by Tom
  9. Tom will have opened the door è The door ______________ opened by Tom

 

 

CAUSATIVE VERB

 

Causative verbs adalah kata kerja tertentu dalam bahasa Inggris yang berfungsi untuk menyuruh orang lain melakukan suatu pekerjaan yang tidak dapat dilakukan oleh subyek.

 

A. CAUSATIVE HAVE

è Digunakan dalam dua bentuk , yaitu pasif dan aktif

Struktur Kalimat :

      S + has/have/had + object + V-1 / V-3

V-1 = jika obyeknya manusia

V-3 = jika obyeknya bukan manusia

Ex :

  • The teachers have Lisda do her homework

S           have     O   V-1

  • Father has his car washed

S    has      O        V-3

Untuk soal yang bersifat analisis, maka suatu pengertian sangat diperlukan, contohnya adalah sebagai berikut :

  1. S + has/have/had + pronoun object manusia + V-1

Artinya/means :

S + ask/asked + pronoun object manusia + to + V-1

Ex :

  • They have their student bring the book

means :

  • They ask their student to bring the book
  1. S + has/have/had + object bukan manusia + V-3

Artinya/means :

S + ask/asked + someone/body + to V-1 + object

Ex :

  • Tuti has her brother’s book returned

means :

  • Tuti ask someone/body to return her brother’s book

 

B. CAUSATIVE GET

  • Pada dasarnya mempunyai struktur kalimat yang sama dengan causative have, tetapi ada penambahan to sebelum V-1 dalam causative get

Struktur Kalimat :

  1. S + get/got + pronoun object manusia + to + V-1

Artinya / means :

S + as/asked + pronoun object manusia + to + V-1

Ex :

  • Mother gets her daughter to study dilligently

means :

  • Mother asks her daughter to study dilligently
  1. S + get/got + pronoun object bukan manusia + V-3

Artinya / means :

S + ask/asked + someone/somebody + to + V-1 + O

Ex :

  • Sister got her wall painted

means :

  • Sister asked someone

 

 

CONDITIONAL SENTENCE

(Bentuk Pengandaian)

 

Conditional sentence (bentuk pengandaian karena bermakna berlawanan dengan kenyataan sebenarnya.

Bentuk Kalimat : Kalimat Majemuk (compound sentence), yang terdiri atas induk kalimat (main clause) dan anak kalimat (subordinate clause) yang biasa disebut if-clause.

Contoh : She will come if she is not busy (dia akan datang jika dia tidak sibuk)

Ardi will go if you invite him (Ardi akan pergi jika kamu mengundangnya)

Dalam bahasa Inggris, kalimat pengandaian terdapat tiga type yang masing-masing memiliki kegunaan sendiri-sendiri.

 

A. TYPE I

è digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu perbuatan atau kejadian yang akan    dilakukan atau terjadi jika suatu syarat terpenuhi.

 

Pola Kalimat :

If + S + V1 + O ; S + will + V1 + O

If Clause                         : simple present tense

Main Clause      : simple future tense

Contoh :

  • If the rain stops today, I will go to the meeting
  • If he has much money, he will buy me a motorcycle
  • If you study hard, you will pass the exam

 

B. TYPE II

è digunakan jika kita menghayalkan/mengandaikan suatu keadaan yang bertentangan dengan keadaan yang ada.

 

Pola Kalimat :

      If + S + V2 + O ; S + would + V1 + O

If clause              : past tense tense

Main clause       : past future tense

Contoh :

  • If I were a doctor, I woulkd take care them
  • If he studied hard, she could pass the exam
  • If he gave the money, I would buy some book

 

C. TYPE III

è digunakan apabila kita membayangkan suatu kemungkinan yang lain dari suatu peristiwa yang sudah lewat atau sudah terjadi (past) dan tidak mungkin terjadi lagi.

 

Pola Kalimat :

If + S + had + V3 + O ; S + would have + V3 + O

If clause              : past perfect tense

Main clause       : past future perfect tense

Contoh :

  • If I had been there, I would have explained the matter
  • If they had told me the problem, I would have helped them
  • If mother had asked me to do the homework, I would have done it

SUBJUNCTIVE

 

 

A.   Bentuk kata kerja pada kalimat subjunctive

  1. Present Subjunctive

Wish

+ Noun + V2 / were

If only

Would rather

As if / as though

  1. Past Subjunctive

Wish

+ Noun + had + V3 / been

If only

Would rather

As if / as though

 

Arti / fakta dalam kalimat subjunctive

  1. I wish she weren’t late.

(fakta : she is late)

  1. I wish she came to school now.

(fakta : she doesn’t come to school now)

  1. I wish she could help us.

(fakta : she can’t help us)

 

  1. I wish she had not been late.

(fakta : she was late)

  1. I wish she had come to school yesterday.

(fakta : she didn’t come to school yesterday)

  1. I wish she could have helped us.

(fakta : she could not help us)

A. DIRECT SPEECH

è Bentuk kalimat kutipan langsung dari si pembicara tanpa mengalami perubahan

My mother said, “It is time to go away”

(reporting verb)   (reported speech)

Reporting verb                = kata kerja yang memberitakan

Reported speech           = kalimat langsung

 

B. INDIRECT SPEECH

è Bentuk kalimat tidak langsung yang diulang kembali dalam bentuk lain tetapi masih tetap mempunyai pengertian dan makna yang sama

 

Indirect Speech terdiri atas tiga jenis :

  1. Command/Request

Pada kalimat perintah (command) selalu mempergunakan kata kerja dasar

  • “Drink the milk!” mother told her children
  • Grandmother said : “Be careful!”
  • Teacher said : “Don’t cheat during the test!”

Apabila ingin merubah ke reported speech maka kita hanya menambahkan to pada kata kerja I diatas

  • Grandmother said to me to be careful
  • Teacher said to all student not to cheat during the test

Kalimat negatif menggunakan don’t dirubah menjadi not to

 

  1. Statement

Perubahan kalimat langsung dari suatu kalimat pernyataan terdapat beberapa perubahan, diantaranya pronoun, tenses, keterangan waktu/tempat. Tetapi perubahan dilakukan sesuai dengan situasinya

  • Direct : The woman said “ I am feeling tired”

Indirect     : The woman said that she was feeling tired”

  • Direct : They said “ We have played football”

Indirect     : They said that they had played football

  • Direct : Arman said “ I will continue my study

Indirect     : Arman said that he would continue his study

 

  1. Question

Kalimat question selalu diawali dengan kata ganti bantu atau question words.

Ø Pertanyaan dengan kata kerja bantu (auxilary)

Pada pola pertanyaan ini kita menambahkan if atau whether, kemudian merubahnya ke kalimat (statement) dengan menyesuaikan pronoun, tenses dan adverb-nya

  • Direct : Ahmad ask me “ Do you go to school?”

Indirect     : Ahmad asked me if I went to school

  • Direct : Rani ask Rita “Are you thirsty?”

Indirect     : Rani ask Rita if she was thirsty

  • Direct : Fatma ask Marva “ Will you join with me?”

Indirect     : Fatma ask Marva if she would join with her

      Ø Pertanyaan dengan question word

  • Direct : Budi asked me “ Why are you cry?”

Indirect     : Budi asked me why I was cry

  • Direct : They asked him “When do you meet us?”

Indirect     : They asked him when he met them

  • Direct : Sinta asked me “Where will you go?”

Indirect     : Sinta asked me where I would go

 

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