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Teks descriptive memberikan gambaran tentang orang/benda/tempat/binatang secara khusus (spesifik), gamblang, (sering) rinci, (acapkali) dapat divisualisasikan.

Tujuan (purpose) teks description adalah untuk menggambarkan seseorang (person), tempat (place), benda/binatang (thing).

Þ to describe particular person, place or things


Stuktur Teks Descriptive

  • Identification, yaitu pengenalan subyek atau hal yang akan dideskripsikan
  • Description, yaitu penginformasian tentang ciri-ciri subyek; misal: sifat-sifat psikologis, perilaku (attitude), tampilan fisik (physical apperance), fitur-fitur khas (special features), kualitas (quality) dan sejenisnya.


Unsur Kebahasaan Teks Descriptive

  • Noun yang spesifik, misal : father, school, my dog, dll
  • Simple present tense
  • Detailed noun phrase, kata benda yang mendapatkan perian kata sifat, misalnya:
    • An intelligent tall student

perian         noun

  • A big large beautiful wooden house

perian                      noun

  • Beragam jenis adjective yang bersifat describing, numbering, classifying; misalnya:
    • Three tall buldings
    • Sharp white fang
  • Relational process, menggunakan kata kerja yang dapat menggambarkan keadaan participant dan atau mengisyaratkan kepemilikan
  • Figurative language, menggunakan bahasa figurative seperti simile atau metapor sebagai cara untuk memberikan ilustrasi perbandingan
    • My throat is as dry as dessert
    • Her skin is white as cloud and smooth as water


Contoh Text Descriptive :

My Toy


I have a toy. It is a doll, a bear doll, and I call it Teddy

Teddy Bear is an American origin. My dad bought it as a present for my tenth birthday anniversary last year. The doll is small, fluffy, and cute. It has got thick brown fur. When I cuddle it, the fur feels soft. Because my teddy bear is a doll, I don’t need to feed it. I wash it at the loundry at least once amonth. Every night Teddy accompanies me sleeping. When I am at school, Teddy stays inmy bed. Teddy Bear is really a nice, adorable, and charming toy. I love my Teddy Bear very much



Teks recount merupakan jenis teks yang isinya melaporkan peristiwa, kejadian, atau kegiatan yang menimpa seseorang, atau berupa pengalaman seseorang.

Tujuan (purpose) teks recount adalah menceritakan kembali tentang kejadian di masa lampau

Þ to retell past events


Stuktur Teks Recount

  • Orientation, pendahuluan atau pembuka berupa pengenalan tokoh, waktu, dan tempat
  • Events, rangkaian kejadian/peristiwa
  • Reorientation, penutup, ungkapan-ungkapan yang menunjukkan peristiwa/kejadian/kegiatan sudah selesai.
  • Komentar pribadi akan peristiwa yang diutarakan, sifatnya optional


Unsur Kebahasaan Teks Recount

  • Noun tertentu sebagai kata ganti orang, misalnya Albert Eistein, Bill Gates, Bob Marley, dsb
  • Individual participant, terfokus pada kisahan partisipan (pelaku) tertentu yang spesifik.
  • Past tense, menggunakan kata kerja bentuk lampau
  • Time connective dan conjunction untuk mengurutkan kejadian, misalnya after, before, soon, then, after that, dsb
  • Action verb, kata kerja yang menunjukkan peristiwa atau kegiatan, misalnya stayed, climbed, killed, dll
  • Adverb and adverb phrases, untuk menunjukkan tempat, waktu, dan cara. Misalnya, yesterday, last week, at home, slowly, carefully, dll.


Contoh Teks Recount :

Dear Ratu,


I’m writing to you concerning of my last day in Jogja. I just got back from Borobudur, the wonderful temple I’ve ever seen. The weather is fine. We are now staying in a hotel. It is not far from Malioboro. We are treated well here. It has many excellent staff who serve the customers. We plan to go around Malioboro after the children take a short nap. We want to enjoy having “lesehan” there. It is a kind of restaurant but we sit on the ground.

Many kinds of logical handicraft are sold along Malioboro street. Both domestic and foreign tourist are interested in them. I want to buy some as souvenirs.

Don’t worry. I’ll also buy you the most interesting one. It’s been a great experience for me.





News Item

Teks News Item merupakan teks yang isinya memberitakan peristiwa atau kejadian yang dipandang layak diketahui oleh publik-bermuatan berita.

Tujuan (purpose) teks News Item adalah memberikan informasi kepada publik tentang sesuatu kejadian/peristiwa penting

Þ to give information to the reader about important occasion


Stuktur Teks News Item

  • Newsworthy Event, kejadian inti
  • Background, latar belakang atau pemicu kejadian; elaborasi kejadian, orang yang terlibat, tempat kejadian, dsb.
  • Sources, sumber berita yang berasal dari komentar saksi kejadian, pendapat para ahli dsb.


Unsur Kebahasaan Teks News Item

  • Headline, informasi singkat akan peristiwa
  • Action verb, kata kerja yang menunjukkan peristiwa atau kegiatan, misalnya innagurated, signed, killed, dll
  • Saying verb, kata kerja pelaporan, misalnya said, witnessed, told, dll


Contoh Teks News Item :

Denpasar, Bali : Enviromental Organization Fauna Conservation for Life (EOFCFL) claimed that Bali is the biggest site of turtle trading in the country.

In the period between May through to August 1999, it reported, some 9,400 of the protected animals had been traded.

According to Putu Lisa Kusuma Mustika, a reptile expert from Indonesian World Wildlife Fund (WWF), tortoises have long been killed in several areas of Indonesia, with the highest number in Bali.

“Most of them are consumed as food while some of them are used for traditional ceremonies,” Putu told Antara.

Besides its meat, Putu said, tortoise are also used as souvenirs for tourists.



Teks Narrative berisi cerita khayalan atau kisah nyata yang mendapatkan bumbu-bimbu perekayasa.

Tujuan (purpose) teks Narrative adalah menghibur pembacanya.

Þ to amuse / entertain the readers

Teks narrative memiliki ciri utama yaitu terdapatnya masalah (ayau hal yang dianggap masalah atau pelik) dan langkah yang diambil untuk merespon masalah tersebut-ini umumnya berupa solusi atau penyelesaian.


Stuktur Teks Narrative


  • Orientation, pendahuluan atau pembuka berupa pengenalan tokoh, waktu, karakter, tempat.
  • Complication/crisis, pengembangan konflik atau pemunculan masalah
  • Resolution, penyelesaian konflik atau langkah yang diambil untuk merespon masalah
  • Reorientation, penutup – ungkapan-ungkapan yang menunjukkan cerita sudah berakhir, ini sifatnya optional
  • Coda, perubahan yang terjadi pada tokoh dan pelajaran yang dapat dipetik dari cerita; sifatnya optional.


Unsur Kebahasaan Teks Narrative

  • Noun tertentu sebagai kata ganti orang, hewan dan benda dalam cerita, misalnya stepmother, household, dsb
  • Individual participant, terfokus pada kisahan partisipan (pelaku) tertentu yang spesifik
  • Past tense, menggunakan kata kerja bentuk lampau
  • Time connective dan conjuction untuk mengurutkan kejadian, misalnya after, before, soon, then, after that, dsb
  • Action verb, kata kerja yang menunjukkan peristiwa atau kegiatan, misalnya stayed, climbed, killed, dll
  • Saying verb dan thinking verbs, kata kerja yang menunjukkan pelaporan atau ujaran, misalnya said, told, promised, thought, understood, dsb


Contoh Teks Narrative :

A long time ago, a king and a queen had a baby girl. There was a bad old fairy who said, “ The Princess is going to cut her hand on a spindle and die.”

The good fairy came and said, “She is not going to die. She will cut her hand on a spindle and sleep for a hundred years; then a prince will come and she will wake up.”

Seventeen years passed and the princess grew up to be a beautiful and clever girl.

One day she went to a part of the palace where she had never been before. She sat down in front of an old spinning wheel and cut her hand on a spindle. Then she went and so did everyone else in the palace.

A hundred years later a young Prince came and saw  the palace among high trees. He went upstairs. The prince came to a room and found the princess sleeping. He kneeled beside her and said, “Wake up, Sleeping Beauty.”

The Princess woke up and at once everybody else woke up, too. The Prince married Sleeping Beauty and together they lived happily ever after.



Teks Procedure umumnya berisi tips atau serangkaian tindakan atau langkah dalam membuat sustu barang atau aktifitas.

Tujuan (purpose) teks Procedure adalah untuk memberi petunjuk tentang langkah-langkah / cara-cara melakukan / membuat sesuatu.

Þ to show the reader how to make/do something

Teks procedure juga dikenal dengan istilah directory


Stuktur Teks Procedure

  • Aim/Goal, tujuan kegiatan
  • Materials, bahan-bahan yang dibutuhkan untuk membuat/mengerjakan sesuatu
  • Steps, serangkaian langkah-langkah.


Unsur Kebahasaan Teks Procedure

  • Imperative, kalimat-kalimat perintah, misal: go, sit, don’t put, don’t mix
  • Action verb, kata kerja yang berhubungan dengan aktifias fisik atau intelektual, misal : mix, turn, put, dsb
  • Connective of sequence, misalnya then, while, next, after that, dll
  • Numbering, angka-angka yang menunjukkan urutan kegiatan, misalnya first, second, third, dst


Contoh Teks Procedure

How to Make Fried Chicken



  • 1 kg chicken (thigh, wing, breast etc)
  • 3 cloves of garlic (cut thinly)
  • 1 tablespoon of salt
  • 1 teaspoon of pepper
  • 3 eggs
  • 500 g flour
  • 1 kg cooking oil



In a large bowl, combine flour, garlic, salt and pepper until well incorporated. Beat the egg in a separate bowl. Heat the oil to 200 degrees in a large pan. Coat the chicken in the beaten egg, coat the chicken in the beaten egg, coat it with the flour mixture, and coat it again with the egg mixture and once again in the flour mixture. Make sure that your oil does not get too hot. Otherwise the color of the chicken will turn dark before the chicken is actually done. Taste the chicken, to make sure the seasoning are right. Serve with rice and sauce.


Passive Voice


  1. Someone handed Ann a menu at the restaurant


  1. Indiana University has awarded Peggy a scholarship


  1. Some company paid Fred three hundred dollars in consulting fees


  1. A local advertising company has offered Maria a good job


  1. They will send you a bill at the end of the month


  1. Someone will give the starving people a week’s supply of rice as soon as the food supplies arrive in the famine-stricken area.


  1. Someone invited you to a party


  1. Someone wrote that book in 1987


  1. Alex wrote that book in 1987


  1. People grow rice in many countries


  1. The secretary is typing the letter


  1. Someone is televising the game


  1. Teachers teach reading in the first grade


  1. Someone has offered Anna a good job


  1. Some told you to be here at ten


  1. Someone published that book in 1985


  1. Someone has sent Michael an invitation toa wedding


  1. Someone made that hat in Mexico


  1. Someone will serve dinner at six


  1. Someone is going to serve dinner at six


  1. Someone will announce the news tomorrow


  1. Someone will give the exam next week


  1. Someone has paid the bill


  1. Someone has made a mistake


  1. Someone has watered the plants


  1. The teacher is giving a test in the next room right now


  1. The teacher is asking you to use the passive



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