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The petroleum we obtain today was formed under the ground for many millions of years. In the past, small animals living in the sea sank to the seabed when they died. Layers of these creatures built up over million of years, and the actions of heat, pressure and bacteria turned their bodies into petroleum. The petroleum spread through porous rocks until it came to impervious rocks. In this way, pocket of petroleum were formed beneath the ground. Over many thousand of years, this land rose above the sea, and deposits of oil are now found on or near land.
Oil company employ scientist to study rocks and discover where oil is likely to be found. If it seems likely that exist beneath their feet, they will drill a narrow hole to find out whether there is any oil. They may be unsuccessful, if a new field is being explored, there is one chance in nine of discovering petroleum.
- What is the text about?
- Deposits of oil
- Pockets of petroleum
- Impervious rocks
- The petroleum
- Oil companies
- The first paragraph is about _____
- How petroleum was formed
- Small animals living in the seabed
- How long petroleum was formed
- What has happened beneath the ground
- The spread of petroleum
- Which of the following statement is correct according to the text?
- Heat, pressure and bacteria play an important role in the formation of petroleum
- Scientist always succeeded in finding a new oil field
- Scientist are employed to form petroleum
- Animals living in the seabed bring deposits of oil to the surface of water
- Oil is usually found on the water surface
- “ _____ and deposits of oil are now found on or near land. The underlined word means _____
- The text can be categorize into _____
Almost everyone eats bread daily, especially for breakfast. Bread making is not a complicated task. You must have an oven, water, sugar, salt, flour, and yeast. The basic ingredient is flour comes from wheat. There are two kinds of flour, which is the soft, and the hard one.
Hard flour, made by winter wheat, is better choice for making bread. Bread using hard flour produces better texture and taste. Luke warm water is added to the flour to make dough.
Yeast is a microscopic organism. The size may not be impressive but it is capable of producing carbon dioxide. It is also easy to use. Powered yeast needs only be dissolved in water to be used instantly. Yeast works best in the presence of sugar and warmth.
Besides, encouraging yeast to grow quickly in the dough, sugar is added to give flour to the bread. Salt is added for the same purpose, to make the bread taste nice. However, it has the reserve effect on yeast, unlike sugar. The next ingredient is oil; olive oil, corn oil, peanut oil and butter. It is essential for making the bread tender. After mixing with all these ingredients, the flour is hand beaten before sent to the oven.
- What is the communicative purpose of the above text?
- The process of making a proper bread
- How to select correct wheat
- Tells us the important of bread
- To tell us how easy to make bread
- To tell us why bread is served as breakfast
- What is the kind of this text?
- Narrative text
- Report text
- Explanation text
- Review text
- Which of these statement is true?
- Hot water is added to the flour to make dough
- Yeast is very impressive in size
- Yeast work worse in the presence of sugar and warmth
- Yeast is a microscopic organism
- Bread using soft flour makes better texture and taste
- What does powered yeast refer to?
- Yeast that is capable of producing carbon dioxide
- Yeast is the microscopic organism
- Yeast that can be dissolved in water
- Yeast that cannot mix with sugar
- An organism that comes from wheat
- How many kinds of flour are there and what are they?
- There is one kind of flour
- There is only one kind of flour comes from wheat
- There are two kinds of flour and they are hard and soft flour
- There are many kinds of different flour
- There are good flour and bad flour
Migration is the movement of people or animal from one place to another. People may migrate because they are forced to move, or merely because they want to move. Wars, famine, floods and volcanic eruptions have all caused migrations. The causes of animal migrations have remained basically the same for thousands of years. Animals cannot control their surrounding in the way that men can. Wild animals must move from areas to areas to find physical conditions in which they can survive.
In prehistoric times, men often moved from one area to another much as the animals did. They seldom stayed anywhere for along time, because the food supply usually ran out. As men learned to cultivate crops and domesticate animals, they could stay in one place longer than before. But when the soil no longer produced good crops, or when drought, flood, or fire ruined the drops, men had to migrate is searching for food.
Human migration today is much different from migrations of animals and prehistoric man. People usually move to improve their economic or social condition or because of political changes. Some migrations cause long-range changes in populations, because they bring together peoples with different background.
Migration includes both emigration (the movement of people out of an area) and immigration (the movement of people into an area). International migration occurs between two countries and intercontinental migration between two continent. When people move within one country, from one region, state, or province to another, the movement is called internal migration.
Since the earliest times, people have migrated for three chief reason. First, they have used or destroyed their natural resources. Second, they seek to improve or change some aspects of their way of life. Third, they migrate because of wars, conquests, and invasions. These reasons are usually taken together and called population pressure.
- Besides caused by wars and famine, migration may also caused by _____
- Natural disasters
- What make men in prehistoric times often move from one area to another? They _____
- Followed their cattle
- Wanted to conquer other tribes
- Looked for water
- Tried to escape from wars
- Didn’t know how to cultivate crop
- Why do animals have to immigrate? They _____
- Feel disturbed by men
- Cannot control their group
- Train their physical conditions
- Must adapt with their new environment
- Cannot adapt with the change of their surrounding
- What id the difference of human migrations in prehistoric times and today?
- In prehistoric times men migrated because of war
- Today men migrate because they cannot cultivated the land
- Today people migrate because they want to hunt animal
- Today men migrate for political reasons
- In prehistoric times men migrated to improve their status
- What is an international migration? It is a movement _____
- From one island to another
- From one province to another
- From one country to another
- From one continent to another
- Within one country
THE OIL FORMATION
It was widely known that oil was formed from the remains of plants and animals that lived in the ocean many millions of years ago. The most familiar plants and animals that had formed oil were algae and plankton. They were accumulated on the seabed and were buried under layer of sediment. They were decomposed because the sediment preserved them from the process of decomposition. Instead, the organic matters were transformed by the action of bacteria into substance called kerogen. Over long period of time, further layers of sediment produced increased temperature and pressure, which change the kerogen into many different hydrocarbons.
Atoms of carbon and hydrogen join together in a number of characteristic arrangement to form hydrocarbon molecules. The smallest and simplest hydrocarbon is methane, which has a molecule consisting of a single carbon atom surrounded by four hydrogen atoms. Larger and more complex hydrocarbons have molecules made up of a chain or ring of carbon atoms. Benzene has a molecule consisting of six carbon atoms that form a ring; each ring atom has one hydrogen atom. Hexane consist of a chain of six carbon atoms. The first and the last atom of the chain have three hydrogen atoms, while the four carbon atoms in the middle have two hydrogen atoms each. That’s why crude oil can be thick and dark, or pale and thin.
- What is the main idea of the first paragraph?
- The organic matters that lived millions of years ago
- The process of oil formation
- How algae and plankton change into oil
- The transformation of algae and plankton into kerogen
- The changing of kerogen into hydrocarbon
- Why weren’t the algae and plankton decomposed? Because_____
- They were accumulated on the seabed
- They were transformed into kerogen
- They were preserved from decomposition by the sediment layers
- There was no bacterium to decompose them
- They were eaten by their predators
- What atoms formed benzene?
- One carbon atom and four hydrogen atoms
- One carbon atom one hydrogen atom
- Six carbon atoms and one hydrogen atom
- Six carbon atoms and six hydrogen atoms
- Six carbon atoms and fourteen hydrogen atoms
- Why can crude oil different? Because _____
- The number of the organic matters are different
- The pressure of the sediment layers are different
- The temperatures of the sediment layers are different
- There are methane, benzene and hexane
- The arrangement of hydrocarbon are different
- “Instead, the organic matters were transformed by the action of bacteria …..”
Through the action of the plate tectonics crust of our planet is always moving. Over millions of years the continents drift from one place to another. They jostle together and push up mountain ranges. The movement do not take place continuously, but in small jerks and jumps. It is these jumps that set up the vibrations that we call earthquakes.
The forces that sometimes move the crust of the earth work all the time and cause stresses to be built up in the rocks. Eventually the stresses become so strong that they make the rock snap. The rock whip along a crack called a fault, and this movement causes an earthquakes shock. The shock wave travel outward from the focus, the point where most of the movement takes place, like the ripples from a splash in a pond. The point of the earth’s surface directly above the focus is called the epicenter. Most damage is usually done there.
When the pieces of the earth’s crust snap a long a fault, they usually move too far. Later they may spring back some distance and produce after shocks, and this may continue until the rock masses have settled. Then the stresses begin to build up once more until they are released by the next earthquake.
The different types of shock wave produced by an earthquake travel at different speed. Geological observatories around the world can detect them with instruments called seismographs. By timing when waves arrive, scientists can tell how far away the earthquake was. A world network of observatories can now pinpoint any earthquake’s focus.
The place most likely to have earthquake are the edges of the earth’s surface plates. Where the plates are jostling each other and being created or destroyed. But earthquake cannot be predicted.
- According to the text